Many infections go by themselves if you only wait a little, “says the health authorities.
Do not get antibiotics against:
Physicians should not give antibiotics for “simple” conditions such as:
- Sore throat
- Urinary Tract Infection
- Upper respiratory tract infections as a cold
But if the disease turns out to be more serious and it is due to bacteria, you still have to get antibiotics.
Antibiotics are no longer the first doctor gives you if you have throat inflammation or urinary tract infection. The reason is antibiotic resistance.
Recently, antibiotic resistance has been frequently discussed after it emerged that the intensive care unit for newborns at the University Hospital in Northern Norway had to close after finding so-called MRSA bacteria. Five patients and three other people who stayed at the department were infected with such bacteria.
In the summer, a woman died in the 40s of the antibiotic resistance 56 hours after reaching the fire department at Haukeland Hospital in Bergen.
The doctors worked intensively to find a combination of antibiotics that could break the eight resistant bacteria they found in the woman. But life was not going to save.
– Several have died in Norway
Antibiotic resistance is about a microbes (bacteria, virus or single cell parasites) ability to withstand the effects of antibiotics. This may mean that the use of antibiotics will not affect what a patient is infected with, and it may have consequences for both the patient, the health service and the community.
– This is a big and complex matter, says Gunnar Skov Simonsen.
He is a professor and head of department for infectious diseases at the University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN) and also conducts the Norwegian Antibiotics Resistance Monitoring System (NORM), which detects the presence of antibiotic resistance.
Firstly, there are several who have previously died in Norway of antibiotic resistance, this is not a strange problem, says Simonsen.
– There are quite common bacterial types that we have around us every day, he states.
Secondly, resistant bacteria will occur regardless of the nature of nature, and there are always new bacterial variants, according to the professor.
But we must limit the use of antibiotics, Simonsen emphasizes.
Read more about antibiotics in the Helsexikon.
Proper use of proper antibiotics
The professor believes that there are two main steps that apply when trying to prevent the resistance problem.
– Incorrect attitude of kindergartens
Before it was common to print antibiotics for eye catarrh, a particular child is bullied with. Today, the doctors are more restrictive of this and wait several days before they may give a prescription to the child.
– In the vast majority of people who have eye catarrh, there is the virus that is the cause of this, but there is still an extensive overuse of antibiotics, says Professor Gunnar Skov Simonsen.
Most kindergartens make rules against this that the child should be completely healthy and use antibiotics before returning to the kindergarten.
– But the children usually have a viral infection like this does not work, so this is a wrong attitude from the kindergarten. You must be more critical of who to treat, Simonsen believes.
He finds it completely backed that kindergartens have an antibiotic requirement when eye catarrhal is usually virus that can not be treated.
– The fact that many parents are going to have to spend care days to care for children at home that are really quite healthy is, in my opinion, completely wrong, and in some contexts this gets more attention than it deserves, “said the professor..
Cold or flu?
– The number one is about using antibiotics properly and not too much. Number two is about as good infection protection as possible so we prevent bacteria from spreading, says Simonsen.
In order to achieve this, the authorities have launched a new strategy where specific targets have been set for antibiotic use in Norway.
– The first main goal is to cut total consumption by 30 percent by 2020, compared to 2012. The starting point is that the Netherlands is at this level and if they do, we must also do that, “Simonsen said..
The other main objective of the authorities is to have better control of the type of antibiotics given to hospital patients.
– In hospitals, patients often get antibiotics, but the question is what type of antibiotics patients should get. Here is the goal of trying to avoid broad spectrum antibiotics, says the professor.
Broad spectrum antibiotics will mean antibiotics that can work on several types of conditions, not just one specific condition.
The authorities want the doctors to be careful about giving specific antibiotics that are intended for a specific condition and not giving an antibiotic type that may work more generally.
– Some antibiotic types can be precision weapons against certain types of diseases, while others work in several areas. With severe infection we often have to use broad spectra because we do not know what infection it is talking about, but if we know what we are dealing with, then we have to use specific antibiotic types, Simons explains..
Not to be used for throat or ear infection
Many people get disappointed when they do not get antibiotics with the doctor when pain in the throat or ear is strong.
But it’s good reason that more doctors want to wait to print a prescription for throat or ear infection, says Elisabeth Astrup, doctor and senior adviser at the Department for Prevention and Infection Prevention at the National Institute of Public Health..
– In many cases such upper respiratory infections are caused by viruses, and antibiotics have no effect on viruses. Sometimes there may be grounds for considering antibiotics, but most often not, “says Astrup.
Simonsen believes that most throat infections are caused by viral infection, which is easily seen on good quick tests that are used quite a bit.
– At first, the doctor must determine if the virus or bacteria is to be considered before the drug is being evaluated, “Simonsen said..
If there is a bacterial infection, the doctor must determine the type of antibiotics to be used. The professor states that normal penicillin is usually used for this and not antibiotics for more serious illness.
– But it’s nevertheless a general rule that the doctor should not print antibiotics for this.
Since many people have virus-induced ear infections, this will go over by itself, according to Simonsen.
So, if you’re healthy, either your doctor recommends nose drops and pain relievers.
– But there are some exceptions when it comes to very young children since it can be difficult to judge the situation. But here too the main rule is to start without antibiotics.
Different practices between counties
Simonsen believes that doctors have a great variety of antibiotics in adult respiratory tract infection.
This does the government
- The government has come up with a national strategy for antibiotic resistance. This provides an overview of what is being done in the health service.
- Action plan against antibiotic use in health services describes further measures taken in the health service.
- Important areas of work in the healthcare service include:
- Research – Development of New Antibiotics
- Diagnostic methods development – fast and accurate diagnostics prevent the use of antibiotics on conditions that do not need it
- At global level, it is working for antibiotics to be available to those who need it
- Reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics
- Prevention of infections
- Prevent spread of resistant microbes
- There are key guidelines for antibiotic use in both hospitals and primary health services.
- Read more here.
How to get rid of urinary tract infection
– Someone is very quick to give antibiotics, but that’s not how it should be. Special bronchitis that sits down the throat and lungs is usually caused by a viral infection that passes by itself. When you then give antibiotics, after a few days this will go over anyway, and then you think that medicine is the reason why this goes over. In fact, it had gone over by itself, says the professor.
Astrup also believes that doctors can generally look and be patient before writing a prescription.
– Whether antibiotics are premature is difficult to pronounce bombastic about, but there are probably some different practices, even though the guidelines are the same for the whole country, “says Astrup, while she and her foreskin:
– For example, we see differences in different counties of antibiotic use – without believing the disease burden is significantly different from county to county, says the doctor..
– Do not ask for antibiotics
Simonsen believes that patients should have the attitude that they go to the doctor to get an assessment, not to ask for or demand antibiotics.
– Doctors must also be more critical of what they treat. The simple rule is that you have bacterial pneumonia, you need antibiotics, he says.
In the case of urinary tract infections in adults, the doctors must distinguish between the simple bladder infections that are uncomfortable, but go over by themselves, and the more severe renal congestion inflammation that one needs antibiotics for.
– The most common type of urinary tract infection is bladder inflammation in women. Antibiotics may shorten this by one day and you may get a little better effect, but it will not prevent dangerous disease and you have to wait, Simons says..
Several women have recurrent bladder inflammation, but most are good at drinking and emptying the bladder, for example, drinking cranberry juice and the like. Others think they need antibiotics:
There are some tricks for avoiding urinary tract infections, such as going to the toilet after intercourse and having good habits, all to avoid antibiotics, says Simonsen.
According to Astrup, studies have been conducted that compare the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections with antibiotics, so-called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.
– These point out that in many cases you can avoid using antibiotics. To increase accuracy and avoid unnecessary treatment, it is important to have good, fast and accurate diagnosis, emphasizes the doctor.
Also read: – Unnecessary antibiotics in urinary tract infection
– Safe to wait with antibiotics
It’s absolutely safe with “wait and see the recipe,” says Astrup.
Host medicine can cause infection
– Yes, for the usual “everyday infections” it’s usually that. But, of course, it is important to distinguish between banal and serious infections. The patients in a practice practice will, as a group, be different from the patients in a hospital. It is important that there is a doctor who does these assessments, she emphasizes.
Simonsen agrees with Astrup.
– We always have a rule when it comes to, for example, bladder inflammation that you see it a bit. However, there are serious infections in children with unexplained condition, and if the child does not get better with paracetamol, one should be aware, for example, one should be aware of meningitis, he says.
Norwegians are skeptical
Astrup definitely believes that the authorities are served by patients understanding the importance of being restrictive to antibiotic consumption.
– Definitely. Patient behavior helps to influence antibiotics, even if it is the doctor who has to print it out, “she says..
Simonsen supports this, and believes that there should be a general understanding of the problem.
– There are many things the health agency wants us to do, for example quit smoking. But here we have a communication challenge; Antibiotics are amazing and in some cases life-saving. However, improper use of antibiotics can be dangerous. So we must have a balanced communication among the population here, “he says.
Astrup believes that the requirement for information on antibiotic resistance is coupled with lack of knowledge about the natural course of diseases.
– And it can make you “eventually” try antibiotics without it being necessary, “she says.
Simonsen believes that the population in Norway has good knowledge and good understanding of the problem.
– This goes on educational level and also the cultural. Most Norwegians do not eat medicines, most people are free and waiting for the condition to go over by themselves, “he says..
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