There are a number of different medications that can be used in diabetes treatment.
For most Type 2 diabetics, there is a time when diet and exercise are no longer enough to regulate blood sugar. There are different types of drugs with slightly different effects:
- Biguanid derivatives: The active substance reduces blood sugar levels without stimulating the body‘s own insulin-producing beta cells. This medication often lowers the patient’s blood pressure, as well as losing weight. Use in very insulin resistant patients.
- Insulin stimulants: All these drugs stimulate the body’s beta cells for increased insulin production. This results in both lower blood sugar levels, but also an improvement in insulin sensitivity. This type of preparation can lead to low blood sugar, hypoglycaemia.
- Alfaglucosidase inhibitors: These substances delay the breakdown and thus the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine. This causes blood sugar to rise less after meals, and you get a smoother blood sugar curve. They have a modest but significant glucose-lowering effect. The drugs must be taken to the meal to work.
- Glitazones: Activates peroxisomal proliferator activated gamma receptor (PPAR¿) receptor receptors and reduces insulin resistance in fat, muscle and liver cells. Both fasting blood glucose levels and blood sugar after meal are reduced. The effect occurs gradually for up to 8 weeks after initiation of treatment.